Now People could once get a job
and no-one sat 'round like a blob;
as progress rolled on,
most jobs are now gone
so how does one earn a few bob?
and no-one sat 'round like a blob;
as progress rolled on,
most jobs are now gone
so how does one earn a few bob?
A person who keeps and trains hawks or falcons. Also known as- A Falconer or Hawker in the Middle ages.
A male who assisted in the birthing process (Midwife)
A medieval chemist who aimed to purify, mature, and perfect certain objects, such as turning base metals into gold.
Someone who handed out alms (charity) to the poor and needy
Animal Husbandry is a branch of agriculture concerned with the domestication of, care for and breeding of animals such as dogs, cattle, horses, sheep, goats, pigs etc. This is still practiced today.
Someone who worked in the industry of manufacturing dyes
Annatto is an orange-yellow colour from the seed coat of the tropical Annatto tree & is used as a natural food colouring today, numbered 160b. Although it is considered to be a safe additive in food, many children have a negative reaction to it.
Almoner & his wife
Used to refer to a London shopkeeper & the wearing of an Apron
Shops of Old London
Chief physician; - a term applied, on the continent
of Europe, to the first or body physician of princes
and to the first physician of some cities.
(The free dictionary)
Back ’as boy
A male kitchen servant from the back of the house or manor.
First six servants in a house: housemaid nursemaid, cook, male servant, lady's maid or kitchen maid and another male perhaps a full time butler. From there work became more specialized:steward, full time valet, housekeeper, more lady's maids, governess, parlour maids, laundry maids, scullery maids and from there more male servants. After taxes on male servants became the norm, the more males a home employed, the more socially prestigious it was. Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com
Was employed to clean the wool in the worsted manufacturing industry
Worsted is a type of wool yarn, the fabric made from this yarn and also yarn weight category. The name derives from Worstead, a village in the Englishcounty of Norfolk. (wiki)
An enlisted boy who played the trumpet/bugle in the military ca. 1850-1905. The boy most likely wore a badge and being young, was a nuisance sometimes (fiddling & not keeping still)
The Routledge Dictionary of Historical Slang By Eric Partridge
A commercial traveller
Bale Breaker Tender
(See Opener Tender)
A bal maiden, from the Cornish language 'bal' (a mine) and the English maiden. A young or unmarried woman, being a female manual labourer working in the mining industries
of Cornwall and the bordering areas of western Devon. Bal maidens worked only on the surface. (wiki)
Someone who dug trenches and ditches for drainage, banking up the dirt around the edge
Banksman / Bankman / Bank manager
An employee in the mining industry, in charge of the cages at the pit head.
Barber-surgeons were medical practitioners who, unlike many doctors of the time, performed surgery, often on the war wounded. Barber-surgeons would normally learn their trade as an apprentice to a more experienced colleague. Many would have no formal education and were often illiterate.
As well as cutting hair & shaving beards, a barber could also perform dentistry and blood letting among other things.
In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker and music composer, employed by a patron (such as a monarch or noble), to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors & to praise the patron's own activities (wiki)
Bath Attendants include occupations concerned with assisting clients of public bath houses to take Russian, Sauna, Turkish, electric
cabinet, sweatbox, or steam baths; providing and stocking towels; and checking money etc.
A Baker. It is an Anglo-Saxon and Scottish name, originally from the English occupational surname meaning "baker" (wiki)
Bathing Machine Proprietor
Someone who owned and hired changing huts at the seaside
Beadle / Bedel
An officer of the parish whose principle duty was to keep order, also the town crier
Beadsman / Bedesman
A pensioner or almsman whose duty it was to pray for his benefactor (as in prayer beads). In Scotland there were public almsmen supported by the king and expected in return to pray for his welfare and that of the state. These men wore long blue gowns with a pewter badge on the right arm, and were nicknamed Blue Gowns. They were privileged to ask alms throughout Scotland & on the king's birthday each bedesman received a new blue gown, a loaf, a bottle of ale, and a leather purse containing a penny for every year of the king's life. On the pewter badge which they wore, were their name and the words 'pass and repass', which authorized them to ask alms. The last beadsman died in Aberdeen in 1988. (wiki)
By Dave - originally posted to Flickr as NORBURY,DERBYSHIRE, CC BY-SA 2.0
Someone who made felt used in hat making.
The way of making felts by Robert Hooke, Lecture to the Royal Society, February 1666
The Felt [deleted: mongers] makers buy [all] their wooll from the glovers, who pull it off from their sheepskins It is a shorter & finer wool than that which is shorne [being only that which [deleted: grows between] is pull oft from the Skins of Sheep kild between sheer time and michaelmas and is a soft & bright wooll] and therefore most fitt for their use because wt is shorne is of a longer groth & so has a greater length & discourser [they make use also of fine lambs wool shorne as also of the best Spanish
woole & of red wool and goat hair which is call[ed] camels hair] their sheeps wooll they putt into [boyling] chamber ly & water [half water half ly] and suffer it to soak for '/" howre then they pamp it and beat it well to & fro wth the end of a bord or space till they have scowred out all the dirt and grease then they wash it well wth their hands in a river till the wooll becomes very cleane & white [thus they order also all their spanish wool and camels wool] after which they wring it well & lay it forth in some clean place - to dry [their lambs wool they wash only in hott water and sope till they hang very well & thoroughly sco[wered]
Someone who operates a beetling machine, used in the textile trade for embossing fabric
Beetling is a process applied to linen fabrics and to cotton fabrics made to resemble linen to produce a hard, flat surface with high lustre and also to make texture less porous. In this process, the fabric, dampened and wound around an iron cylinder, is passed through a machine in which it is pounded with heavy wooden mallets. (Britannica)
Physicians & Barbers would perform bloodletting by using leeches for drawing blood, which was said to be a cure for many ailments. Considered one of medicine’s oldest practices, bloodletting is thought to have originated in ancient Egypt. It then spread to Greece, where physicians such as Erasistratus, who lived in the third century B.C., believed that all illnesses stemmed from an overabundance of blood. http://www.history.com/news/a-brief-history-of-bloodletting
A very old system where a married ploughman (hind) would have a female worker on a farm who was bonded. Her labour would likely pay the rent for the ploughman's (hind's) house.
Work in the coal breakers is exceedingly hard and dangerous. Crouched over the chutes, the boys sit hour after hour, picking out the pieces of slate and other refuse from the coal as it rushes past to the washers. From the cramped position they have to assume, most of them become more or less deformed and bent-backed like old men.
The coal is hard, and accidents to the hands, such as cuts, broken, or crushed fingers, are common among the boys. Sometimes there is a worse accident: a terrified shriek is heard, and a boy is mangled and torn in the machinery, or disappears in the chute to be picked out later smothered and dead. Clouds of dust fill the breakers and are inhaled by the boys, laying the foundations for asthma and miners' consumption.
From- John Spargo’s The Bitter Cry of the Children (1906).
A Buddleboy, used and maintained ore-washing vats in
lead and tin mining. A Buddle, is a shallow inclined container in which ore is washed.
A man on a boat with goods, who met ships at anchor to sell to passengers and crew
A porter or dealer at Billingsgate market in London (wiki)
Bumping Machine Operator
Various Bumping Machines seems to have been used in different industries, but mainly the felt hat industry. The compressing & felting of a hood/hat, was done on a Bumping Machine.
'Bumping' was also a term used to refer to the tension of the fabric during the weaving process. In part of the process when the fabric became slack, a bumping sound was then heard when the machine caused the fabric to become taut.
The Mayor of a Dutch, Flemish, German, Austrian, or Swiss town
Someone who prepared butter to sell, or carved butter moulds. Butter carving (shapes) also became an art form in the last 1800's.
Someone who negotiated mining contracts and supplied the labor
In the Cotton industry, working on the carding machines, he sets the grinding rollers into position and they are left to grind all day, being checked on. Following the grinding, he sets up the cards, adjusts the parts, fixes what is necessary.
One of the dirtiest jobs in the Cotton Mill. It requires setting the stripping roller in position, so that the cylinder can be cleaned. The roller is taken down (one man each end) and placed on the stripping box. One man gives the roller a few turns, the strips fall into the box and the roller is clean & can but put back into place. They make their rounds, 2-4 times a day, from card to card.
Operates the carding machine, in the cotton factory.
Someone who made woven cane seats for chairs
A person who hand combed yarn before it was woven
A cleaning woman
A chimney sweep is a worker who clears ash and soot from chimneys
A magician & astrologer
Chimney sweep's (or Master Sweep's) assistant/apprentice, usually a small boy between the ages of 4 and 10, who climbed into small flues to clean. George Brewster
Coal Mine Ripper
Rippers have one of the most dangerous & dirtiest jobs, as they take down or 'rip' the roof. Men who remove the rock above the coal seam and set rings (arches) to raise the height of the gate or road as the coal face advances
Coal Mines & Children
Children as young as 5 or 6 would work long hours in the coal mines, in dark, cold & extremely uncomfortable conditions.
See- Trapper Boy, Nipper, Door Boy, Hurrier, Thruster, Getter, Hewer, Breaker Boy
Slang for cook
Mostly women working about six frames (combs) in the Cotton industry. They creel the combs and Doff the combs at the delivery end when full, also oiling and cleaning the frames. (creel- a rack holding bobbins or spools)
Costermonger (Barrow Boy)
A street seller of fruit and vegetables, in London and other British towns. They were ubiquitous in mid-Victorian England, and some are still found in markets. (wiki)
Is a female Costermonger or fruit seller Molly Malone
A Cowman on a Dairy farm
A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English By Eric Partridge
A person in charge of a boat, particularly its navigation and steering, a ship or boat helmsman
Curer of Smokey Chimneys
Generally a Chimney Sweep with his apprentice Climbing Boy. The job was to enter the chimney & remove the obstruction that was causing the smoke.
Someone who hand coloured a Daguerreotype photograph
The daguerreotype was the first commercially successful photographic process (1839-1860) Named after the inventor, Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre, each daguerreotype is a unique image on a silvered copper plate. (wiki)
An executioner Charles Jean Baptiste Sanson
A printer’s errand boy
See Trapper Boy
Carved Butter Mould
Self Stripping Carding Engine
A Chimney Sweep
BELOW- Sweep with Climbing Boy
Child Mine worker
Costermonger or Barrow Boy
Henry Hood, Coxswain of the
Seaton Carew Lifeboat
19th Century Hand-tinted Sixth-plate Daguerreotype of a Young Girl
Disinfector of Railways
To prevent the spread of disease during cholera outbreaks etc., suspicious or unclean passengers were detained, while they & their luggage was disinfected. The usual method was to strip the passenger and give him a cloth to wrap around his loins, his clothes and luggage are then disinfected by steam. The passenger is taken to a bathing shed and a gallon or so of corrosive sublimate is poured over him as he squats on the ground......Any article that would not stand the steaming, were left exposed in the sun for an hour or so. The passenger then receives his clothes etc. back and is considered then to be safe. In India they had a more severe approach, where any article deemed as suspicious, would be boiled for ten minutes in a carbolic acid solution. Articles made with either leather, wood and glue, were soaked in mercury perchloride solution, or washed with a carbolic acid and soft soap solution, which was also used for metallic items. They were left to dry in the sun for one hour or artificially dried if it was raining. Anything that could not be disinfected, was burnt. The medical officer would usually target 3rd class passengers & let 1st & 2nd class go.
From- Transactions, Volume 19 By Epidemiological Society of London
Tracks of Change: Railways and Everyday Life in Colonial India By Ritika Prasad
The purpose of an electric bath is to boost the metabolism, improve the circulation & have a relaxing & therapeutic effect on the patient. The session is anywhere from 10-40 minutes
Hydrotherapy and Physiotherapy: For Bath Attendants, Nurses and Biophysical Assistants By Lionel C. E. Calthrop
An emasculator is someone who castrates livestock.
A mounted courier
Someone who punched eyes in needles used for sewing. Also called a Holer
A sewing machine needle starts from a coil of high grade carbon steel wire, made two at a time. The wire is straightened and cut to the length of two & is then required to be heated, pressed and cooled. After cooling, points are made using a grinding stone on both ends of the needles, then the needle is ready for stamping. This involves making two flat areas in the middle of the wire where a machine punches the eyes through this flat surface. Before separating the two needles a wire is inserted into the two holes and when the needles are cut the needles remain hanging from the wire. The burrs on the heads are then smoothened and rounded, checked for straightness and made ready for tempering and polishing. The earliest needles were made from Ivory, Bone or Wood
Someone who made up sticks into faggots (bundles), to sell for firewood
A photographer's assistant who hand coloured photographs before colour film was invented.
A person who keeps and trains hawks or falcons. Falconry was the ancient sport of hunting small wild game or birds with trained birds of prey. The trained birds of prey were not restricted to falcons - hawks and occasionally eagles were also used. Also known as- Accipitrary
A Farrier is a Smith who makes & fits horse shoes
A Lunatic poor person
Ferret is a type of cord or tape, like ribbon & was mostly made from silk threads. Green Ferret was a stationery item & was used to tie up land documents in a bundle (as in red tape for legal). Ferret was also used to edge clothing, like bias binding. A ferret weaver would have operated a loom to weave this cord.
An old name for a Midwife, a woman who delivers babies. Maria Ann Sherwood
A Fish bender would have been someone whose job it was to bend the metal plate (Fishplate), to be used to bolt railway tracks together with. The word 'Fish' is a derivative of the word ficher, which means to fasten, or fix.
To Fish a Mast, or Yard, is to fasten a Piece of Timber, or Plank, (by way of Splinter) to the Mast or Yard, to strengthen it; which Piece or Plank is called a Fish.
Fixes any problems with the machinery in the cotton mill & makes sure that it is working properly, so If his supervisory role is incidental, he is called a Fixer
Someone who cleaned or flushed out water mains Joseph William Bazelgette
An old term for a pawnbroker
A worker who cleanses wool through the process of fulling
Fulling, also known as tucking or walking, is a step in woollen clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to eliminate oils, dirt, and other impurities, and making it thicker. (wiki)
Someone who performs on a tightrope or a slack rope, tightrope walker
Beissel Needles- ebook
Scotswomen waulking or fulling cloth, c. 1770.
Getters were the oldest and strongest members of the family, almost always grown men or strong youths. Their job was to work at the coal face cutting the coal from the seam with a pickaxe. Getters were the only members of the family who would work continually with a candle or safety lamp, as they needed the light to see the coal face.
Employed by large landed estate to supervise the activities of tenants
A person employed in an emergency, a stopgap; A Clergyman, Doctor or Vet who charges a Guinea for his services. Also, at the end of the 18th century, 'guinea pig' became the nickname for those who wore hair powder. The Prime Minister, William Pitt the younger, levied taxes on luxury item, tax would be paid on hair powder & later a licence for it was issued at a cost of a guinea. Altered English: Surprising Meanings of Familiar Words By Jeffrey Kacirk & Guinea Pig
By Dorothy Yamamoto
A soldier or halberdier, armed with a halberd, which is a combination spear and battleaxe (a ceremonial officer)
A halberd (Swiss voulge) is a two-handed pole weapon used during the 14th and 15th centuries. The halberd consists of an axeblade topped with a spike mounted on a long shaft. It always has a hook or thorn on the back side of the axe blade for grappling mounted combatants. The halberd was usually 1.5 to 1.8 metres (5 to 6 feet) long.
An executioner Charles Jean Baptiste Sanson
By Dnalor 01 - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 at, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php
Carries armfuls of Cotton from the Opener's bin and feeds it into the Hopper, opening and closing the gates/slides of the machine.
Older children and women were employed as hurriers, pulling and pushing tubs full of coal along roadways from the coal face to the pit-bottom. Hurriers would be harnessed to the tub. Younger children worked in pairs, one as a hurrier, the other as a thruster, but the older children and women worked alone.
An Iron dresser, is someone who worked in an iron foundry cleaning cast metal and moulds
Pic. from the book- The White Slaves of England (1853) by J Cobden.
Someone who made combs, boxes, billiard balls, buttons, and piano keys
The ivory workers of the middle ages by Cust, Anna Maria Elizabeth; Published 1902 Worth a look Books
A court attendant or other person such as a traveller who, for hire, recited or sang verses and performed other acts for the entertainment of the audience including that of a conjuror or a juggler. Jongleur is the French word for juggler. Often the Jongleurs role was to assist the Troubadours or Minstrels.
Someone who was generally an unskilled chimney sweep, or someone of another trade posing as a chimney sweep, if their own work was scarce. These knullers (knull meaning bell) solicited custom by knocking on doors, or ringing door bells, sometimes even saying that someone had sent for them. They always did an inferior jobs & quite a few fires were the result of their poor workmanship. (also known as queriers)
London Labour and the London Poor: the Condition and Earnings of Those that Will Work, Cannot Work, and Will Not Work: Volume 2 January 1, 1865 Worth a look Books
Someone who was paid to wake up factory workers, or other workers on early shifts. Some used long sticks to tap on high windows, others used pea shooters etc. Some people had this as their second job, as in a Policeman after his shift was over, also Children earned money as a knocker-up, before School, even some knocker-Uppers had their own knocker-upper to wake them up. They lasted well into the Industrial Revolution and at least as late as the 1920s before alarm clocks were affordable or reliable.
A person engaged by a church to remove unruly dogs and children from places of worship.
A person who practices or performs sleight of hand, a magician
Lime Burner a maker of lime for mortar
A limner is an illuminator of manuscripts, or more generally, a painter of ornamental decoration.
Someone who carried a link or torch to guide people through city streets at night for a small fee (had to be licensed to trade in early 19th century)
The loblolly boy was an assistant to the ship's surgeon; an errand boy. One of his jobs was to feed the patients. (wiki)
A Scottish chimney sweep
In the finishing department of the cotton mill. He runs up to 3 mangles at a time, also controls the dry cans or any other machine that the mangle is hooked up to. He regulates the water and starch, also keeping the material straight and the machine clean & oiled. There can be a mangle assistant in the Preparing department, the White or Coloured finishing department. Sometimes called a Calenderer.
Someone who operates a mangle
A woman who offered use of the mangle for a fee
A slave dealer
Someone who makes mantuas or a dressmaker. A mantua is an article of women's clothing worn in the late 17th century and 18th century. Originally a loose
gown, the later mantua was an overgown or robe
typically worn overstays, stomacher and a co-ordinating petticoat. The mantua or manteau was a new fashion that arose in the 1680s.
A weaver of woolen pile cloth called mock or imitation velvet, used for making coats and other clothing.
A person who sold patent medicines in public places. As this medicine was ineffective, these people deceived their customers.
George Taylor Fulford
A sewer cleaner, riverbank scavenger
Joseph William Bazelgette
Comtesse de Mailly, 1698. Her mantua has elbow-length cuffed sleeves over the lace-ruffled sleeves of her chemise. The trained skirt is looped back to reveal a petticoat.
Night Soilman / Night Cartman
Someone one who emptied cesspits, ashpits and backyard toilets during the night hours
Nightwalker – Night watchman or Bellman
Since unemployment was illegal, the night watchman, or bellman, along with the ratcatcher, represented the lowest level of English society. With his heavy pike, lantern, bell, and dog, he made his rounds of the city and called the hours.
A Physician or Surgeon, particularly those who claimed to be able to cure the Venereal disease
Robert Liston Florence Foster Jenkins
A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue
By Francis Grose Worth a look Books
See Trapper Boy
from Thomas Dekker's book. The Bellman of London, 1616. London night-watchman going on his rounds with bell, lantern and pike, with his dog at his heels.
An 18th century slang term for a peruke (wig) maker. (Encyclo.com.uk)
Toward the end of the 17th century in Britain, men starting wearing wigs as a mark of fashion and social status.
An Onion cleaner would trim off any roots and stems and the excess flakey layers from the outside skin, leaving a smooth onion.
He is employed in the cotton industry, where there are a considerable amount of machines and he will oil the varies parts of those machines. Fast moving parts need to be oiled frequently, so he would move from machine to machine as required. The sometimes had other duties such as fixing belts, pulleys etc., and if experienced enough, could be promoted to a Fixer.
It is the first essential process in Cotton manufacturing. He opens the bales and can operate 2 or 3 machines, that pull apart the matted sheets.
A person who removed bark from willow rods or osiers which were used in basket weaving. Usually women and children (also known as withy peelers)
The literal translation from Latin, is as porter or doorman, originally was a servant or guard posted at the entrance of a building, or Monastry.
The Opener Tender, opens the
Cotton bales & Starts off the process
A woman employed in the pottery industry to hand paint the finished product
Meaning "an act of begging" is attested from 1849, perhaps from notion of arm stuck out like a panhandle, or of one who handles a (beggar's) pan.
Someone who hangs wallpaper. William Morris
A medieval preacher delegated to raise money for religious works by soliciting offerings and granting indulgences.
Slang for policeman, constable (bobby, cop). Derived from Sir Robert Peel who was the founder of the police force
Picker/Breaker/Intermediate/Finisher Picker Tender
Employed in the Cotton industry. To take off (Doff) from one machine & place on another. Can be up to 6 workers to Doff & six to feed, sometime working in pairs.
A wigmaker (See Nob Thatcher)
A diviner of a person’s character based on the bumps on a person’s head.
Phrenology was a science of character divination, faculty psychology, theory of brain and what the 19th-centuryphrenologists called "the only true science of mind."Phrenology came from the theories of the idiosyncratic Viennese physician Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828).
A glazier: from the small squares in casements, called CARREUX, vulgarly quarrels.
(from The 1811 Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, by Francis Grose)
Worth a look Books
Quarrel: A square of window glass, properly one placed diagonally. Anciently, a diamond shaped pane of glass, hence the cant term- Quarrel picker (glazier). The word was also applied to several articles of a square shape.
(from Report and Transactions - The Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature and Art: Volume 7 January 1, 1875) Worth a look Books
As in querying. (See Knuller)
Someone who worked as a bleacher
Quisters Hey (Dutton, Cheshire), was the enclosure used by a bleacher
A wheelwright, or wagon wheel mechanic.
A mine-girl that works at a 'rack', and who separates the particles of tin from the finely crushed ore.
Rag and bone man
Someone who collects unwanted household items and sells them to merchants. Traditionally this was a task performed on foot, with the scavenged materials (which included rags, bones and various metals) kept in a small bag slung over the shoulder. Some wealthier rag-and-bone men used a cart, sometimes pulled by horse. (wiki)
Building random coursed walls. Walls built of large sized, flat-bedded well-shaped stones, not less than 9 inches thick, laid on their natural beds, random rubble walls, random coursed work
with the different pieces being built up like a random wall of masonry. Rough or random rubble masonry may be set dry, or it maybe set in mortar; but dry it forms fence walls, retaining walls etc.
Nice name for a rat catcher
Piers Plowman By William Langland Worth a look Books
Rat-catchers would capture rats by hand, often with specially-bred vermin terriers, or with traps. Payment would be high for catching and selling rats to breeders. A rat-catcher's risk of being bitten is high, as is the risk of acquiring a disease from a rat bite. Anecdotal reports suggest that some rat-catchers in Europe would raise rats instead of catching them in order to increase their eventual payment from the town or city they were employed by. (wiki)
London Labour and the London Poor: By Henry Mayhew &
William Tuckniss- (JACK BLACK) Worth a look Books
linen left out on bleach fields
Rag and Bone Man
Jack Black, the famous
Someone who repaired clothing
Ribbon Lapper Tender
Mostly women, working 3 frames, they start new laps from the Sliver lapper as the old ones run out and Doff the ball of lap at front.
(See Sliver Lapper Tender for more information)
A early system of policing. A team of men would walk the streets during the night and shake a rattle to warn any offenders that they were near, to avoid confrontation.
Policing in Modern Society By Bruce L. Berg
Rules of the Rattle Watch. 1610-1664 blog.mailasail.com
A person who covered the rollers for the spinning & carding machines in a textile mill. Rollers were covered in felt with a leather outer cover, which had to be replaced when worn. Roller coverers cut the cloth in quantities to correct size, before pasting them onto the rollers.
Working Lives: The Forgotten Voices of Britain's Post-war Working Class By David Hall
Someone who sorted out the small stones in the quarries
The Ugliest House in the World: By Peter Ho Davies
Rust Attendant at a Lavatory
Someone who kept an eye on and cleaned, the build up of rust in public toilets. Before Vitreous china (porcelaine) and enclosed plumbing, the rusting of pedestal lavatories & urinals, was a big problem.
Rules of the Rattle Watch. 1610-1664
1. Watchmen to be on duty before bell-ringing, under penalty of six stivers.
2. Whoever stays away without sending a substitute, to be fined two guilders.
3. One guilder fine for drunkenness..
4. Ten stivers fine for sleeping on the post.
5. If any arms are stolen through negligence of the watch, the watchman will have to pay for the arms and be fined one guilder for the first, two guilders for the second, and the fine for the third offence to be discretionary with the court.
6. A fine of two guilders for going away from the watch, and one guilder for missing turn.
7. The watch is to call the hour at all corners from 9am until reveille, for which they received an additional compensation of eighteen guilders per month.
"Recommendations that vitreous toilets be installed in place of the rusted iron toilets"
"The water closet cisterns should be of wood, lined with copper, as iron cisterns stain the bowl with rust."
Formation of rust could be rapid, as lead pipes were used. In cases where the metal is unprotected it will soon oxidize or rust. leaden pipes which are fixed upon walls outside, or exposed in any way to dampness, the corrosion of the pipes will be enhanced. As with rust-eaten holes in the soil pipe, or pin-holes existing in poor castings, it was possible for sewer gas to escape. The cleansing of rust or scales had to be kept under control & the plumbing kept an eye on.
Second Hands are assistants to and directly under the Overseers. They are in charge of a certain sections and supervise the workers. In the spinning department for instance, he is known as the Section hand, actively directing the Doffers. He also fixes any problems with the machinery & makes sure that it is working properly, so If his supervisory role is incidental, he is called a Fixer.
A skilled workman who applied sedge, which was used as an early roofing material
Sedge: An evergreen marsh plant used to cap waler-reed roofs. It is often scalloped or trimmed with the small knife into an ornamental pattern.
Scrubber or Scourer
Could be male or female and is employed at the cotton factory, to continually scrub the floors, as material etc. falls or drops on to the floor, so it is important to always keep the floor very clean. Paid on a time basis.
Someone employed to keep the waterways and ditches clear
In the textile industry, the scavenger, a little boy or girl, crawls occasionally beneath the mule when it is at rest, and cleans the mechanism from superfluous oil, dust and dirt." (See Woolen Billy Piecer)
Someone employed in a scibbling mill where the wool was roughly carded before spinning
In mills that only possessed scribblers (and before 1820 most Welsh cardingmills were really scribbling mills) the wool had to be passed two or three times through the single cylinder scribbler before it could be slubbed ready for spinning.
A Scribbling or Slubbing Mill, is used for the preparation of raw fleece etc, for spinning by a coarse form of carding.
The Welsh Woollen Industry By John Geraint Jenkins
A sexton is an officer of a church, congregation, or synagogue charged with the maintenance of its buildings and/or the surrounding graveyard.
Thatching with Sedge
Illustration of scavengers and piecers at work that appeared in Trollope's Michael Armstrong (1840)
Thrusters would help hurriers by pushing the tubs of coal in the mine, from behind with their hands and the tops of their heads. The tubs and the coal could weigh over 600kg, and would have to be moved through roadways which were often only 60-120cm high.Younger children worked in pairs, one as a hurrier, the other as a thruster
A person who hand wrote or painted the price tickets on goods displayed for sale and painted signs for a window display
Ticket-writing and Sign-writing/painting
The Countryside Companion By Malcolm Tait,
Someone who worked in the wool mills employed to tose or tease the cloth
The Countryside Companion By Malcolm Tait,
Worth a look Books
A person who works in the mines. Trammers work as assistant miners in all the work a miner does. They load the broken mineral onto shaker or belt conveyors, fill and haul the mine cars, bring in the mine timber and other materials to support and equip the mine workings, serve the mining and transport machines, and work also as auxiliary mine timbermen.
Would opened and shut wooden doors to let air through the tunnels in the mines. They would sit in the dark, with just a small candle & no-one to talk to
Trucker or Floorman
Cotton industry. They do heavy work and are responsible for getting material from one section or room to another. They also put up and take down beams for warpers & can be refered to as Beam Truckers
A person who made wooden boards or platters for serving food from or cutting & slicing food on
The Timber-tree Improved- W. Ellis 1742
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A maid who attended the bedroom and 'tucked in' the bedclothes (sheets, blankets)
Sheep (& Cattle) were to be fed on Turnips during the winter months to fatten them up, so the Shepherds would have certain responsibilities as to keeping the sheep contained, slicing the turnips, lambs kept seperate etc.
A between maid (nickname tweeny, also called hall girl particularly in the United States) is a female junior domestic worker in a large household with many staff. The term between maid came from the fact that her duties were split between the area of responsibilities of the housekeeper, butler
and cook; if these individuals did not like one another, the job of the between maid was a very difficult one. A maid who worked “between the stairs” and assisted the cooks and the housemaids. (wiki)
Another name for a chimney sweep
Someone in charge of a portion of land used for breeding rabbits and other small game
He will pick out anything from the sweepings at the cotton mill, that may still have a use.
Someone employed to make roads
Neuman, Baretti and Seoane's Dictionary of the Spanish and English Languages By Henry Neuman
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Someone in charge of the local well with the responsibility of ensuring clean water for the village
A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds and cares for someone else's child. Wet nurses are employed when the mother is unable or chooses not to nurse the child herself. Wet-nursed children may be known as "milk-siblings", and in some cultures the families are linked by a special relationship of milk kinship (common among the rich) (wiki)
A railway worker who checked for cracked wheels by striking them with a long handled hammer and listening for a clear ring
A horse or oxen team driver
Turnip Slicer for Sheep
A 'Tweeny' servant worked
7 days a week 5am - 10pm
Astronomical Chart from the 1800's
Oxen Team, led by a Whacker
A tinsmith, sometimes known as a whitesmith, tinner, tinker, tinman, or tinplate worker is a person who makes and repairs things made of tinware, or other light metals.
A bleacher of cloth (See Quister)
Men women or children who were employed to remove bark from willow rods or osiers which were used in basket weaving
English Country Life and Work: Rural Ways of Life in Days Gone by Ernest Pulbrook
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